Write an Abstract
The abstract is an important part of the paper. It must be concise and clear so that readers can understand the purpose, methods, research results and conclusions of the research/invention in the shortest time.
|A sample abstract can refer to the following chart:|
It is required to be concise and clear, and appropriate words should be used to reflect the scope and extent of the research. If you need to further clarify the content of the thesis, you can add a subtopic after the topic;
A brief introduction to the research motivation and why the topic was chosen for research;
hypothesis or research question;
|A summary of the research methodology and process, with emphasis on key points/major steps|
Summarize the focus of the study and briefly describe how the study was conducted;
Exclude materials used in the process unless the material has a significant impact on the process or is the focus of the study;
Exclude research done by researchers other than researchers, such as supervisors or predecessors;
|Brief description of study data and results|
Only include what is important leading to the conclusion, no graphs are required;
|Conclusion / Application|
It is required to be concise and clear, using appropriate words to describe the important results of the study and conclude.
|Effects of Marine Engine Exhaust Water on Algae |
Mary E. Jones
Hometown High School, Hometown, PA
This project in its present form is the result of bioassay experimentation on the effects of two-cycle marine engine exhaust water on certain green algae. The initial idea was to determine the toxicity of outboard engine lubricant. Some success with lubricants eventually led to the formulation of “synthetic” exhaust water which, in turn, led to the use of actual two-cycle engine exhaust water as the test substance.
Toxicity was determined by means of the standard bottle or “batch” bioassay technique. Scenedesmus quadricauda and Ankistrodesmus sp. were used as the test organisms. Toxicity was measured in terms of a decrease in the maximum standing crop. The effective concentration – 50% (EC 50) for Scenedesmus quadricauda was found to be 3.75% exhaust water; for Ankistrodesmus sp. 3.1% exhaust water using the bottle technique.
Anomalies in growth curves raised the suspicion that evaporation was affecting the results; therefore, a flow-through system was improvised utilizing the characteristics of a device called a Biomonitor. Use of the Biomonitor lessened the influence of evaporation, and the EC 50 was found to be 1.4% exhaust water using Ankistrodesmus sp. as the test organism. Mixed populations of various algae gave an EC 50 of 1.28% exhaust water.
The contributions of this project are twofold. First, the toxicity of two-cycle marine engine exhaust was found to be considerably greater than reported in the literature (1.4% vs. 4.2%). Secondly, the benefits of a flow-through bioassay technique utilizing the Biomonitor was demonstrated.
近年市場上對可捲曲薄膜電池的渴求有增無减，以配合日新月異科技産品的發展。有見及此，是次研究集中開發研製光合微生物薄膜燃料電池。第一代的薄膜電池以導電玻璃爲電池的最外層，作鞏固結構之用，同時導電塑料聚吡咯以電 導化學方式塗在導電玻璃上，利用其三維網狀多孔性結構提供更大的表面面積，使生物催化劑更有效于聚合物纖維上結聚，减少電阻。該光合微生物薄膜電池顯示較大的高電力密度(619 mW/m^2) 及短路電流密度(1733 mA/m^2)。除此之外，研究更伸延至第二代可捲曲光合微生物薄膜燃料電池，使其能應用在不同産品。電極以聚吡咯，瓊脂複合物作基本物料，配以塑料片作鞏固結構之用，透過全生物過程産生電能(電力密度, 135 mW/m^3 及短路電流密度, 437 mA/m^2)。該設計除了輕型、成本低外，電池更利用超過90%可生物降解物料製成，對環境有正面影響。該報告是研發可捲曲光合微生物薄膜燃料電池的首份報告。